Where Does Torah Come From?

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Torah is at the very center of Judaism.  When we talk about “Torah,” though, not everyone means the same thing.  A literalist approach would argue that the Torah is what was given to Moses at Mt. Sinai as described in this week’s Torah portion, Yitro; those same individuals might include the Oral Torah as also having been received at the same time.

Others think of Torah more broadly.  Torah is from the same word as Moreh/Morah–teacher.  It is roughly translated as instruction.  There are those who think of Torah as any kind of Jewish learning.

Parashat Yitro relates the “official” story of where instruction came from.  There is a sense, however, that what was revealed to Moses and our people at Mt. Sinai continues to be revealed on a regular basis.  As time goes on and we make more discoveries, we further uncover God’s instructions and God’s will.  In this respect, Torah not only comes from our past–and from a place far away, but Torah also comes from a place very close to us every day.

Our lives are enriched by Torah–by the instructions we receive from many sources; those instructions help us to find our place in the world and what God wants from us.  Do not believe that all there is to know about Torah and the world is known already.  The search for Torah is never-ending.

The Struggle is Real…difficult

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Parashat Va-era contains the beginning of the process of our ancestor’s liberation from Egyptian slavery.  The end of the portion is comprised of the first plagues God visited on our oppressors.

Va-era and the following two portions are filled with miracles that accompany the Exodus from Egypt.  Modern readers often wonder if the events described really happened.  Did the Nile turn to blood?  Were there frogs everywhere, etc.?  And was it possible that these natural disasters only struck the Egyptians and not the Israelites?  Scholarly papers have been written that seek to explain the plagues from an epidemiological standpoint.  A few of them are rather convincing; there are plausible explanations for how it started and how one plague naturally followed after the other.

But do we really need to understand exactly how the plagues occurred?  Do we even need to believe that the stories contained in these Torah portions (or any others for that matter) really happened?

The miraculous nature of the story does not require historical or scientific verification.  Ultimately, what is most important is the underlying message:  the difficult path from oppression to liberation.  This story is not just about the Exodus from Egypt.  It is about the constant quest for justice and freedom in our world.  Bringing redemption to our world is never easy; it doesn’t occur overnight.  And there are times when we reach a milestone–where some wrong is righted or some injustice recognized–and feel that the moment is beyond just us.  There is something “miraculous” about it…or a sense that a higher source somehow intervened.There are those who take the story literally, but for those who don’t, there is still the valuable lesson about the work it will take to redeem our far from perfect world.

Shabbat Shalom!

To Paraphrase: Sometimes It’s Not Just About You

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The beginning of Parashat Ki Tetze gives instructions for when an Israelite soldier finds a woman attractive among the captives of the conquest and wishes to take her as a wife.
The man is to bring her to his home, trim her nails and cut her hair.  She also removes her captive’s garb.  These seem to be signs of mourning.  The text continues by telling us that she is to mourn her parents for thirty days–presumably because she will never see them again.
At first read, this text might appear to be sensitive.  The man’s emotions are clear:  he is in love and has desire.  The verses tell us that he must first take into her feelings; her mourning for what her life was and might have been is real and must be recognized.  This seems unusual since the Torah does not often deal with feelings.
While we may take some comfort in knowing that the Torah has sensitivity toward the woman’s feelings, we must not forget that it does not change her fate.  Her life was not in her control; she became an object rather than a subject in her destiny.
Even so, it is instructive that the Torah mentions that when it comes to emotions, we must look beyond what we are feeling alone.  There is always another side to the story that deserves validation and respect.
Shabbat Shalom!

The Importance of Really Seeing

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Parashat Re’eh begins with a statement from God given through the prophet Moses.  We are told that God has placed before us blessing and curse—and it is plain to see, in Hebrew, “Re’eh.”

There are instructions later in the Parasha that the Israelites, once they enter the Land of Israel, are to place a list of blessings on Mt. Gerizim and list of curses on Mt. Ebal.  These two mountains overlook the town of Shechem (Nablus today).  Gerizim is to this day covered in greenery, while Ebal is barren and rocky.  It is easy to imagine that the Israelites looking at these two mountains would clearly see the difference between blessing and curse, between following the commandments and going after false gods.  It is an amazing visual aid.

We are familiar with the phrase, “seeing is believing,” but that is only partially true.  Sometimes we cannot accept something until we see it with our own eyes.  Other times, our eyes can deceive us; we make judgments about what we see on the surface and miss what is going on behind it.

We know that life is never that simple.  Unlike Gerizim and Ebal, life is not black and white (although sometimes it is!).  Most of the time there are shades of gray…and other colors too.  That is why it is so important to see—really see—in order to do our best to determine what courses of action will lead to blessings and which (God-forbid) will lead to curses.

Shabbat Shalom!

I Try Not to Get Political on this Blog, but…

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I am heartbroken by the events in our nation, but particularly by the never-ending stream of mass shootings. It is a nearly daily occurrence and there seems to be no end in sight. I got sick of thoughts and prayers a LONG time ago. When Congress did NOTHING after the Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre, my understanding of what I thought this country stood for was destroyed.

In the Jewish community there has been a lot of talk about security–in general, but especially after the Pittsburgh massacre. Judaism teaches us that we have certain obligations: ritual and ethical (and that these often go hand in hand). Among our obligations are a number of commandments that instruct us to go out of our way to ensure that we prevent unnecessary injury or (God forbid) death. There is a law in the Torah that tells us that when we build a home, a parapet must be put on the roof lest someone on the roof accidentally fall off. Another law tells us that when we dig a pit, it must be marked off or cordoned off lest a person or an animal wander in and be injured. Jewish law over the centuries expanded on this idea, exhorting us to take all necessary steps to prevent bloodshed. We must ask ourselves whether we are taking the necessary precautions to prevent gun violence. (As if the daily news feed does not tell us already).

I know that a lot of folks place the blame for what is happening now on the person who occupies the Oval Office; he certainly has not helped (and many argue that he has made it worse). The truth is that mass shootings in this country predate the Trump Administration; his administration–along with those of previous presidents–bear responsibility for not doing more.

I have been involved in the gun control movement for over 20 years, having served on the board of the Ohio Coalition Against Gun Violence for much of that time. The executive branch is only part of the issue. Congress has it in its power to pass common-sense legislation that would carry out the spirit of Jewish law and the American ethos–namely to do whatever necessary to prevent bloodshed and violence. Congress has failed to do so–even when both houses were controlled by the same party. The NRA is a powerful force in ensuring that this remains the case. It is up to US, the voters, to let our elected officials know that we are a bigger threat than the NRA. The way we do that is by pushing this issue in town hall forums, debates, and in our communications. Facebook and Twitter are not enough. They do not vote NRA shills out of office–only WE can do that.

Of course, there is also an issue in our State Houses and Capitals. Gerrymandering has ensured that in many states there will also be no action on this issue. Ohio is a purple state. It is the swing state personified when it comes to national elections. On the state level, however, it is all red…year after year after year. Gerrymandering has made sure that the State House stays firmly in the control of one party even though the state is evenly split and the majorities should swing back and forth on a regular basis.

The ONLY way I see a change on a national level is by voting those who are in the pocket of the NRA out. On the state level, gerrymandering has to be dealt with. And if you don’t think that the US Supreme Court has contributed to the perpetuation of this problem, think again; there must be a serious examination of what responsibilities should accompany the Second Amendment.

Our work is cut out for us if we want to Make America Livable Again. IMHO, here is where to start:

–Get educated on the issue–especially in your state. What legislation is pending? Who is supporting it? Who is sponsoring? Who is blocking it?

–Support organizations that are helping to raise awareness and support political initiatives to end gun violence. There are dozens, and many websites can direct you to those that will use your donations wisely.

–Do more than send your thoughts and prayers: VOTE!!!

These are not Jewish imperatives, or even American imperatives…it is our human duty and it is literally a matter of life and death.

Korach and Leadership

ORT-21 Tochka

Parashat Korach is considered by many to be the most revolting Torah portion there is.  (See what I did there?)  It is about the rebellion of Korach, Datan and Aviram against the leadership of Moses and Aaron as the Israelites began their wanderings in the wilderness on their way to the Promised Land.

At first read, the case brought by Korach and his followers seems like a legitimate challenge.  They want to know who put Moses and Aaron above everyone else; after all, are not all the Israelites holy?  Traditional commentaries have noted that their complaint was really a cover for a power grab.  Whereas Moses felt a responsibility to God and the people, it appears that the rebels were more interested in elevating themselves.  These are two very different views of leadership, and ultimately God makes it clear which one is preferable; Korach and his followers were swallowed whole into the earth.

On this post-Independence Day Shabbat, we reflect upon the history of our nation.  Like at Passover, we recognize the value of the freedoms that we sometimes take for granted.  We also consider those whose leadership—like Moses’—brought us through many challenging times.  It has been the sacrifices of members of our Armed Forces that have helped to ensure our freedoms, but it has also been the service of duly elected officials that have labored on behalf of the people.  Likewise, each of us has a responsibility to hold our officials to the standards set by our Constitution and our history; that is part of what we do to preserve this grand democratic experiment.  Let us be wary, though, that we do so for the right reasons—not for a power grab, but rather to benefit all those with whom we share this great country.

What is Your Inner Voice telling You?

Thought for Shabbat

Shelach Lecha contains the well-known story of the scouts sent into the Land of Israel by Moses to check out the territory in preparation for the conquest.  One scout was sent from each tribe.  Although they all saw the same thing, not everyone agreed on what it all meant.  Ten of the scouts were afraid and said that even though the land was everything that had been promised, it would be too difficult to conquer.  The other two had faith that God—who had already wrought Ten Plagues on Egypt, split the sea, and fed them manna—would not fail them now.  Unfortunately, the voices of the ten won out and the Children of Israel were made to wander in the wilderness for forty years until a new generation arose in its place.

Shelach Lecha can be a reminder to all of us about the proverbial “voices” in our heads.  They can often be like the ten scouts, providing a million reasons why we cannot do this or that.  They are the voices that traffic in fear, negativity and stagnation.  They tell us we cannot get that new degree, lose that weight, find a new job, or even just be happy.  How often do we listen to the other two voices?  Do we look back and remind ourselves of the blessings that are a part of our lives?  If we take the time to really listen to the voices of positivity in our heads and in our lives, we may not only find ourselves avoiding forty wasted years, but also find ourselves in the midst of a “land of promise.”

Shabbat Shalom!

Rabbi Michael Ungar